Aristocracy (Greek: ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos 'excellent', and κράτος, kratos 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning 'rule of the best'.

At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual. The term was first used by such ancient Greeks as Aristotle and Plato, who used it to describe a system where only the best of the citizens, chosen through a careful process of selection, would become rulers, and hereditary rule would actually have been forbidden, unless the rulers' children performed best and were better endowed with the attributes that make a person fit to rule compared with every other citizen in the polity. Hereditary rule in this understanding is more related to Oligarchy, a corrupted form of Aristocracy where there is rule by a few, but not by the best. Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Xenophon and the Spartans considered Aristocracy (the ideal form of rule by the few) to be inherently better than the ideal form of rule by the many (Democracy), but they also considered the corrupted form of Aristocracy (Oligarchy) to be worse than the corrupted form of Democracy (Mob Rule). This belief was rooted in the assumption that the masses could only produce average policy, while the best of men could produce the best policy, if they were indeed the best of men. Later Polybius in his analysis of the Roman Constitution used the concept of aristocracy to describe his conception of a republic as a mixed form of government, along with democracy and monarchy in their conception from then, as a system of checks and balances, where each element checks the excesses of the other. In practice, aristocracy often leads to hereditary government, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit.

In modern times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class, and has since been contrasted with democracy.

Aristocracy Media

100,354 media by topicpage 1 of 1004
Queen Victoria, c.1870.

Queen Victoria, c.1870.

By Andre-Adolphe-Eugene Disderi .....A cabinet card sized woodburytype of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), taken in about 1870 by the French photographer Disderi (1819-1889). This is from the 'Disderi' album in the ... More

Czar Nicholas II

Czar Nicholas II

Artist: C.L. Co..Artist Bio: German publishing company, active early 20th century.Creation Date: 1913.Process: postcard.Credit Line: Gift of Stephen White ... More

HM the Gyalmo, HH Prince Palden, HH Princess Hope

HM the Gyalmo, HH Prince Palden, HH Princess Hope

Photograph shows Queen Hope Cooke with her children, Prince Palden and Princess Hope Leezum, Gangtok, Sikkim.

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King George V, Queen Mary and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, taken during a visit to the Western Front in France. They are positioned in front of a large brick building with French windows. The King and Queen are ... More

[King Palden Thondup Namgyal accepting scarves, including one scarf from Alice Kandell, at his coronation, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[King Palden Thondup Namgyal accepting scarves, including one scarf fr...

Title devised by Library staff. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Congress, March 13, 2010. Webcast available at: http://... More

[Prince Palden Gyumed and Princess Hope Leezum seated on white scarves, Sikkim]
Princess Hope & Queen Hope in the palace, Sikkim

Princess Hope & Queen Hope in the palace, Sikkim

Date from information on related slide: LC-KAN05-0072. Title from item. Forms part of: Dr. Alice S. Kandell Collection of Sikkim Photographs (Library of Congress). Also represented in LOT 14034-2, pg. no. 027 ... More

[Palden Thondup Namgyal, King of Sikkim, and Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, in brocaded dress, walking to the Tsuklakhang Main Temple (Palace Temple) during the King's birthday celebration, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[Palden Thondup Namgyal, King of Sikkim, and Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikk...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from information for related slide: LC-KAN05-69. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Co... More

[King and Queen of Sikkim and their daughter Hope Leezum watch birthday celebrations, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[King and Queen of Sikkim and their daughter Hope Leezum watch birthda...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from information for related slide: LC-KAN05-69. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Co... More

[Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, seated, three-quarter length portrait, facing left]

[Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, seated, three-quarter length portrait, f...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from related slide: LC-KAN05-072. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Congress, March 1... More

Coin of Roger I, Duke of Sicily
Ecgfrith visiting Cuthbert from BL YT 26, f. 51

Ecgfrith visiting Cuthbert from BL YT 26, f. 51

Miniature of Ecgfrith, king of the English, along with his bishop Trumwine, visiting Cuthbert at Lindisfarne, from Chapter 24 of Bede's prose Life of St Cuthbert. Image taken from f. 51 of Prose Life of Cuthber... More

Full-page architectural border from BL Harley 3046, f. 10

Full-page architectural border from BL Harley 3046, f. 10

Full-page architectural border in colours and gold with a large historiated initial 'D'(ominus) with Pope Gregory the Great, putti, Jerome and another Church father, and the arms of Ferdinand I of Aragon, king ... More

Lion from BL Add 15423, f. 15v

Lion from BL Add 15423, f. 15v

Detail: pen-flourishing inhabited by a lion. Image taken from f. 15v of Pentateuch (the 'Duke of Sussex's Italian Pentateuch'). Written in Hebrew.

Micrography from BL Add 15252, f. 116v

Micrography from BL Add 15252, f. 116v

~Masorah~ in micorgraphic design at Joshua. Image taken from f. 116v of Duke of Sussex Bible with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Wild duck from BL Add 15251, f. 183

Wild duck from BL Add 15251, f. 183

Detail of a panel inhabited by a wild duck at the end of Samuel. Image taken from f. 183 of Bible (the 'Duke of Sussex's Italian Bible') with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Decorated panel from BL Add 15252, f. 302

Decorated panel from BL Add 15252, f. 302

Panel decorated with pen-flourishing at the end of the Book of Ezekiel. Image taken from f. 302 of Duke of Sussex Bible with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Text page from BL Add 15252, f. 179v

Text page from BL Add 15252, f. 179v

Text page: 2 Samuel 21-22. Image taken from f. 179v of Duke of Sussex Bible with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Song of the Sea from BL Add 15251, ff. 49v-50

Song of the Sea from BL Add 15251, ff. 49v-50

Full floral border with medallions inhabited by animals, at the Song of the Sea (Ex. 15: 1-18). Image taken from ff. 49v-50 of Bible (the 'Duke of Sussex's Italian Bible') with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Writ... More

Text page from BL Add 15252, f. 238

Text page from BL Add 15252, f. 238

Text page: Isaiah 51-52. Image taken from f. 238 of Duke of Sussex Bible with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

The sword is given to Arthur from BL Add 10292, f. 100

The sword is given to Arthur from BL Add 10292, f. 100

The Archbishop presents the sword to Arthur before the people. The inscription on the stone is: 'Whoever pulls this sword out will be king of the land.' Image taken from f. 100 of L'estoire del Saint Graal (ff... More

Rabbit from BL Add 15423, f. 41v

Rabbit from BL Add 15423, f. 41v

Detail: marginal drawing of a rabbit. Image taken from f. 41v of Pentateuch (the 'Duke of Sussex's Italian Pentateuch'). Written in Hebrew.

Micrography from BL Add 15252, ff. 94v-95

Micrography from BL Add 15252, ff. 94v-95

~Masorah~ in micrographic design at the end of Numbers and beginning of Deuteronomy. Image taken from ff. 94v-95 of Duke of Sussex Bible with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Temple implements from BL Add 15250, ff. 3v-4

Temple implements from BL Add 15250, ff. 3v-4

Opening with full-page miniatures of the Temple implements. Image taken from ff. 3v-4 of Bible (the 'Duke of Sussex's Catalan Bible) with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Coat of arms from BL Add 15423, f. 1

Coat of arms from BL Add 15423, f. 1

Detail of a partial foliate border with a coat of arms. Image taken from f. 1 of Pentateuch (the 'Duke of Sussex's Italian Pentateuch'). Written in Hebrew.

Coin of Roger I, Duke of Sicily
Timpaan van Egmond: boogtrommel met Petrus, graaf Dirk VI van Holland en zijn moeder gravin Petronella, ca. 1120
Timpaan van Egmond: boogtrommel met Petrus, graaf Dirk VI van Holland en zijn moeder gravin Petronella, ca. 1120
Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Miniature of the Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway in a fleet of late-era cog ships. Image taken from f. 14v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard II) (index His... More

Countess of Asturias from BL Royal 20 C II, f. 15

Countess of Asturias from BL Royal 20 C II, f. 15

Detail of a miniature of the Countess of Asturias, her daughter, and ladies receiving the Ambassadors of the King of Spain. Image taken from f. 15 of Cleriadus et Meliadice, Historia Apollonii regis Tyri. Writt... More

French army disembarks in Africa from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 84v

French army disembarks in Africa from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 84v

Detail of a miniature of the French army disembarking in Africa, led by the duke of Bourbon holding a shield bearing the royal arms of France, with a partial border. Image taken from f. 84v of Chroniques. Writt... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 26v

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 26v

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri crossing the river Don by boat with all his forces. Image taken from f. 26v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway. Image taken from f. 14v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard II) (index Histoire rimée de Richar... More

King of France from BL Harley 200, f. 2

King of France from BL Harley 200, f. 2

Miniature of the king of France being presented with the attributes of his function (the crown, the helm, the cloak, the sword, the fleur de lis, etc.) by bishops and dignitaries. Image taken from f. 2 of .

Genealogical tree from BL King's 396, f. 20v

Genealogical tree from BL King's 396, f. 20v

Miniature of busts of Geoffrey, Duke of Ardenne; William, Count of Warenne; Godfrey, 'Erle of Arigy'; and Eric, Count of Bigorre; each with their arms and at the beginning of a branch of the genealogical tree. ... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 48

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 48

Miniature of Father Sergius meeting the Grand Duke Dmitri and blessing him. Image taken from f. 48 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 79

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 79

Text page with coloured initials and line-fillers, and a portion of a message written in the margin by Lady Jane Grey to her father, the Duke of Suffolk (continued from f. 78v): '… that you have loste them but ... More

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 21

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 21

Detail of a miniature of Richard II giving the Duchy of Aquitaine to the Duke of Lancaster. Image taken from f. 21 of Chroniques, Vol. IV, part 2. Written in French.

Diagram of a tree from BL Royal 20 C VIII, f. 2v

Diagram of a tree from BL Royal 20 C VIII, f. 2v

Detail of a diagram called 'arbre de dueil' of a tree surmounted by Fortune with her wheel, with two claimants to the papacy, Clement VII and Urban VI (with erased faces); the kings of France (Charles VI) and E... More

George I from BL Eg 2572, f. 20

George I from BL Eg 2572, f. 20

Miniature of a bust of George I. Image taken from f. 20 of Guild Book of the Barber Surgeons of York, including its ordinances. Written in English and Latin.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 46

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 46

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri remaining on the field of battle for eight days to bury the dead. Image taken from f. 46 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian ... More

Charles VI of France from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 161

Charles VI of France from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 161

Detail of a miniature of Charles VI, king of France, and his army entering a castle. Image taken from f. 161 of Chroniques. Written in French.

George II from BL Eg 2572, f. 22

George II from BL Eg 2572, f. 22

Miniature of a bust of George II. Image taken from f. 22 of Guild Book of the Barber Surgeons of York, including its ordinances. Written in English and Latin.

Ninus killing the king of Bactria from BL Royal 16 G VII, f. 51v

Ninus killing the king of Bactria from BL Royal 16 G VII, f. 51v

Detail of a miniature of Ninus killing the king of Bactria. Image taken from f. 51v of Les anciennes hystoires rommaines (A compilation of ancient history in two parts, each preceded by a table of contents: Par... More

Arms of England from BL Royal 17 F III, f. 120

Arms of England from BL Royal 17 F III, f. 120

Detail from the full border of the royal arms of England surmounted by a crowned helm with mantling in Edward's colours of red and blue and surrounded by the Garter, with two escutcheons bearing the royal arms... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 30

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 30

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri dismounting from his horse and praying, as an army approaches. Image taken from f. 30 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Chu... More

Chilperic receiving saints from BL YT 32, f. 3

Chilperic receiving saints from BL YT 32, f. 3

Minature of Chilperic, a king of Burgundy, accompanied by members of his court, receiving saints Oyant and Luxicine, with a scatter border of flowers and insects. Image taken from f. 3 of Chroniques abrégées de... More

Ransom of Comte de Nevers from BL Harley 4380, f. 118

Ransom of Comte de Nevers from BL Harley 4380, f. 118

Detail of a miniature of Sultan Bajazet receiving the ransom for the Comte de Nevers. Image taken from f. 118 of Chroniques, Vol. IV, part 2. Written in French.

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 80

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 80

Text page with coloured initials and line-fillers, and a portion of a message written in the margin by Lady Jane Grey to her father, the Duke of Suffolk (continued from f. 79v): '… youre gracys humble daughter ... More

Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland from BL Harley 1319, f. 37v

Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland from BL Harley 1319, f. 37v

Detail of a miniature of Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland, bearing a message from Lancaster. Image taken from f. 37v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard I... More

Robert de Namur and Jehan Froissart from BL Royal 14 D II, f. 8

Robert de Namur and Jehan Froissart from BL Royal 14 D II, f. 8

Detail of a miniature of Robert de Namur reading a book and receiving a messenger of the king of France, with Jehan Froissart writing, at the beginning of the Chroniques of Froissart. Image taken from f. 8 of C... More

French army disembarks in Africa from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 84v

French army disembarks in Africa from BL Royal 14 D VI, f. 84v

Detail of a miniature of the French army disembarking in Africa, led by the duke of Bourbon holding a shield bearing the royal arms of France, with a partial border. Image taken from f. 84v of Chroniques. Writt... More

Irish troops from BL Eg 3028, f. 31

Irish troops from BL Eg 3028, f. 31

Drawing of the king of Ireland's troops sail to give aid to the Pascens. Image taken from f. 31 of Roman de Brut, a verse epitome (begins imperfectly) with continuation to Edward III; Destruction de Rome; Fiera... More

Arrest of the Duke of Gloucester from BL Harley 4380, f. 134

Arrest of the Duke of Gloucester from BL Harley 4380, f. 134

Detail of a miniature of the arrest of Thomas of Woodstock, the Duke of Gloucester. Image taken from f. 134 of Chroniques, Vol. IV, part 2. Written in French.

Prince Andrej and Prince Dimitri from BL YT 51, f. 24v

Prince Andrej and Prince Dimitri from BL YT 51, f. 24v

Miniature of Prince Dimitri of Briansk and his brother, Prince Andrej of Pelotzk coming before the Grand Duke Dmitri. Image taken from f. 24v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). W... More

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 78v

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 78v

Text page with coloured initials and line-fillers, and a portion of a message written in the margin by Lady Jane Grey to her father, the Duke of Suffolk (continued from f. 78): '… it hathe pleased god to take a... More

Diagram of a tree from BL Royal 20 C VIII, f. 2v

Diagram of a tree from BL Royal 20 C VIII, f. 2v

Diagram called 'arbre de dueil' of a tree surmounted by Fortune with her wheel, with two claimants to the papacy, Clement VII and Urban VI (with erased faces); the kings of France (Charles VI) and England (Rich... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 32

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 32

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri advancing as far as the Kulikova Pole before halting. Image taken from f. 32 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 20

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 20

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri ordering his captains to ride out into the fields of Kolomna with drums, horns, and trumpets. Image taken from f. 20 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of... More

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 117

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 117

Miniature of the Duke of Gloucester receiving Richard II at the Castle of Pleshy, with a full foliate border including a bird, flowers, and a naked, helmeted man riding a hobby-horse and carrying a banner. Imag... More

Duke of Northumberland's oath from BL Harley 1319, f. 41v

Duke of Northumberland's oath from BL Harley 1319, f. 41v

Miniature of the Duke of Northumberland kneeling at an altar and swearing an oath on the sacred host. Image taken from f. 41v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard I... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 43

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 43

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri shedding tears and addressing his chiefs, discussing the unfavourable aspect of the battle just past. Image taken from f. 43 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the... More

Bishop of Kolomna and Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, ff. 19v-20

Bishop of Kolomna and Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, ff. 19v-20

Miniature of the Bishop of Kolomna meeting the Grand Duke Dmitri at the gates of the city, with life-bearing crosses; miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri ordering his captains to ride out into the fields of Kolo... More

Menorah from BL Add 15250, f. 3v

Menorah from BL Add 15250, f. 3v

Full-page miniature of some of the Temple implements with the menorah in the centre. Image taken from f. 3v of Bible (the 'Duke of Sussex's Catalan Bible) with ~masorah magna~ and ~parva~. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 29v

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 29v

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri, with his brother, Vladimir, climbing a hill to survey his army below, at the battle of Kulikovo (1380). Image taken from f. 29v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 36v

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 36v

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri mounting his horse and giving the signal to his army to begin the battle. Image taken from f. 36v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in... More

Stephen of Burgundy from BL YT 32, f. 2

Stephen of Burgundy from BL YT 32, f. 2

Miniature of Stephen, the second legendary king of Burgundy, setting out on a pilgrimage to Victor of Marseilles, with Andrew's cross carried before him. In the background on the left, Trophimus, the first kin... More

Godefrey de Bouillon from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 3

Godefrey de Bouillon from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 3

Detail of a miniature of Godefrey de Bouillon in his palace, with a full border containing the added royal arms of England surmounted by a crown and surrounded by the Garter with the motto 'Hony soit qui mal y ... More

Alkmund and Offa from BL YT 47, f. 10v

Alkmund and Offa from BL YT 47, f. 10v

Miniature of Alkmund with his wife Siware and Edmund meeting his cousin, Offa, king of East Anglia, in John Lydgate's Lives of Saints Edmund and Fremund. Image taken from f. 10v of Lives of Saints Edmund and Fr... More

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 117

Richard II from BL Harley 4380, f. 117

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of Gloucester receiving Richard II at the Castle of Pleshy. Image taken from f. 117 of Chroniques, Vol. IV, part 2. Written in French.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 47

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 47

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri and his army crossing the river Severka. Image taken from f. 47 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

f. 135, displayed as an open bifolium with f. 134v: sketches and diagrams from BL Arundel 263

f. 135, displayed as an open bifolium with f. 134v: sketches and diagr...

Notes and schematic sketches on mechanics (pulleys); notes and sketches on water, with reference to Lorenzo de Medici. Image taken from f. 135 of Notebook ('The Codex Arundel'). Written in Italian.

Sergius of Radonzeh from BL YT 51, f. 36

Sergius of Radonzeh from BL YT 51, f. 36

Miniature of the scriptures sent by Igumen Sergius of Radonzeh being brought before the Grand Duke Dmitri. Image taken from f. 36 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Ru... More

Rollo from BL King's 396, f. 4v

Rollo from BL King's 396, f. 4v

Miniature of Rollo (Robert), Duke of Normandy, seated wearing chainmail; the genealogical tree growing from near his feet. Image taken from f. 4v of Genealogy of Queen Elizabeth I. Written in English.

Trahern and king of Norway from BL Eg 3028, f. 7

Trahern and king of Norway from BL Eg 3028, f. 7

Drawing of Trahern and the king of Norway. Image taken from f. 7 of Roman de Brut, a verse epitome (begins imperfectly) with continuation to Edward III; Destruction de Rome; Fierabras. Written in French.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 14v

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 14v

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri and his brother, Vladimir, praying before an icon of Christ. Image taken from f. 14v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Chur... More

Robert from BL King's 396, f. 4v

Robert from BL King's 396, f. 4v

Detail of a miniature of Robert (Rollo), first duke of Normandy. Image taken from f. 4v of Genealogy of Queen Elizabeth I. Written in English.

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 42

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 42

Miniature of the Metropolitan blessing the Grand Duke Dmitri and sprinkling him with holy water. Image taken from f. 42 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Chur... More

The king of France with the spearhead from BL Add 24189, f. 10

The king of France with the spearhead from BL Add 24189, f. 10

Miniature of the king of France, above, holding the head of the spear of Longinus and approached by three men holding a fleur-de-lis banner and, below, the Roman emperor, holding the head of the spear of Longin... More

Joust from BL Royal 18 E I, f. 139

Joust from BL Royal 18 E I, f. 139

Detail of a miniature of a joust before the earl of Buckingham and the duke of Brittany, with their arms. Image taken from f. 139 of Chroniques. Written in French.

Charles V from BL Royal 17 F III, f. 1

Charles V from BL Royal 17 F III, f. 1

Detail of a miniature of Charles V, king of France, receiving the book from the translator, Raoul des Presles, at the beginning of the prologue. Image taken from f. 1 of City of God (La cité de Dieu). Written in French.

English ships from BL Royal 18 E I, f. 103v

English ships from BL Royal 18 E I, f. 103v

Detail of a miniature of ships with the royal arms of England and George, led by Thomas, earl of Buckingham, holding a shield bearing his arms (the royal arms of England differentiated by a label of 5 point and... More

Rollo marrying the daughter of Charles the Simple from BL YT 33, f. 24v

Rollo marrying the daughter of Charles the Simple from BL YT 33, f. 24...

Miniature of Rollo marrying the daughter of Charles the Simple, the king of France, before the king and his court. Image taken from f. 24v of Grande Chronique de Normandie. Written in French.

Philip the Good from BL Harley 6199, f. 57v

Philip the Good from BL Harley 6199, f. 57v

Miniature of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Image taken from f. 57v of Statuts de l'Ordre de la Toison d'Or (index Statutes and Armorial of the Order of the Golden... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 30v

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 30v

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri on horseback, delivering a speech to his princes and captains. Image taken from f. 30v of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Ch... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 21

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, f. 21

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri starting from Kursk with his army. Image taken from f. 21 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway. Image taken from f. 14v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard II) (index Histoire rimée de Richar... More

Augustine and Charles V from BL Royal 14 D I, f. 1

Augustine and Charles V from BL Royal 14 D I, f. 1

Miniature of Augustine writing, and Charles V, king of France standing in a landscape, with an angel holding a shield with his arms, with a full border containing an unidentified coat of arms, azure a lion ramp... More

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway from BL Harley 1319, f. 14v

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of Salisbury arriving at Conway. Image taken from f. 14v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard II) (index Histoire rimée de Richar... More

Duke of Northumberland's oath from BL Harley 1319, f. 41v

Duke of Northumberland's oath from BL Harley 1319, f. 41v

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of Northumberland kneeling at an altar and swearing an oath on the sacred host. Image taken from f. 41v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of Ki... More

Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland from BL Harley 1319, f. 37v

Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland from BL Harley 1319, f. 37v

Miniature of Richard II and the Duke of Northumberland, bearing a message from Lancaster. Image taken from f. 37v of La Prinse et mort du roy Richart (Book of the Capture and Death of King Richard II) (index H... More

Prince Philip leaving Paris from BL Harley 326, f. 13v

Prince Philip leaving Paris from BL Harley 326, f. 13v

Miniature of prince Philip surreptitiously leaving Paris to go to the aid of the king of Sicily. Image taken from f. 13v of Edward's IV's Descent from Rollo (ff. 1-7); Romance of the Three Kings' Sons (ff. 8-12... More

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, ff. 11v-12

Grand Duke Dmitri from BL YT 51, ff. 11v-12

Miniature of the Grand Duke Dmitri being joined by the princes of Bieloozero; miniature of the saintly Sergius blessing the Grand Duke Dmitri and his army. Image taken from ff. 11v-12 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Pob... More

Death of the king of Portugal from BL Royal 14 D V, f. 305

Death of the king of Portugal from BL Royal 14 D V, f. 305

Detail of a miniature of the king of Portugal burnt to death in his bed. Image taken from f. 305 of Chroniques. Written in French.

Coronation of Baldwin I from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 118v

Coronation of Baldwin I from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 118v

Detail of a miniature of the Coronation of Baldwin I, with border decoration of thistles and bluebells. Image taken from f. 118v of History entitled 'Listoire de tres hault, tres excellent, et tres victorieux p... More

King of Ind from BL Harley 3954, f. 35

King of Ind from BL Harley 3954, f. 35

Detail of a coloured drawing depicting the King of Ind giving blessing to vessels of ox urine, to be further used in rites. Image taken from f. 35 of Travels (index Voyage d'Outre Mer, Itinerarium). Written in English.

Vision from BL YT 51, f. 41

Vision from BL YT 51, f. 41

Miniature of one of Prince Vladimir's men telling the Grand Duke Dmitri of his vision. Image taken from f. 41 of Skazanie o Mamaevom Poboishche (the Tale of the Rout of Mamai). Written in Russian Church Slavonic.

Text page from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 1

Text page from BL Royal 17 F V, f. 1

Text page. Image taken from f. 1 of History entitled 'Listoire de tres hault, tres excellent, et tres victorieux prince Godefroy Duc de Buillon en son temps roy de Iherusalem'. Written in French.

Marriage from BL Harley 4380, f. 6

Marriage from BL Harley 4380, f. 6

Detail of a miniature of the marriage of Philipe d'Artois to Marie, daughter of the Duc de Berry. Image taken from f. 6 of Chroniques, Vol. IV, part 2. Written in French.

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 78

Lady Jane Grey inscription from BL Harley 2342, f. 78

Text page with coloured initials and line-fillers, and a portion of a message written in the margin by Lady Jane Grey to her father, the Duke of Suffolk: 'the lorde comforte youre grace and that in his worde wh... More

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